History of the Calligraphy of the Prophet's Mosque

Nabawi Mosque is a mosque that was established directly by the Prophet. Before this time, this mosque had been renovated several times during the Caliphate era. After the Apostle died, the Caliph Umar bin Khattab once renovated and expanded this mosque. After that, the Caliph Uthman bin Affan also did the same. In fact, he not only renovated, but also added new elements that were not there before, such as making carvings on the pillars of the mosque.

The renovation carried out by Uthman was protested by some people. They protested not because they did not like the expansion and renovation carried out by Uthman, but they preferred the building of the Nabawi mosque like the time of the Prophet to be able to tabarruk.

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Uthman bin Affan then explained the reason why this mosque needed to be renovated and expanded. Kholifah Uthman said, "I have heard the Prophet Muhammad say that anyone who builds a mosque with the intention of Allah Taala, then Allah will wake a palace in heaven for him".

After the reign of Uthman ibn Affan, Umar bin Abdul Aziz also expanded the Nabawi mosque on the orders of the Caliph Walid bin Abdul Malik. Umar bin Abdul Aziz asked people to make calligraphy in the Qibla of the Nabawi mosque. There is written Surat al-Fatihah and several other short letters. The calligraphy was written in gold ink.

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Amazed by the beauty of the Nabawi mosque calligraphy, Umar bin Abdul Azis asked the calligraphy writer to write a Qur'anic prayer book with the khat used in the Nabawi mosque.

Historians note, from the beginning no one protested and destroyed the carvings and calligraphy that had the Nabawi mosque. Even the great ulama from among friends and Muslims did not criticize or issue illicit fatwas. The calligraphy of the Nabawi mosque was destroyed when Medina was controlled by the khawarij group. However, after the Khawarij power collapsed in Medina, calligraphy was made back at the Nabawi mosque. Among the leaders who made calligraphy at the Nabawi mosque after being destroyed by the Khawarij was Abdul Malik Muhammad bin Athiyyah in 130 H.

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