Islamic calligraphy on the walls Kuna Cikoneng Anyer Banten

Cikoneng Mosque is one of the ancient mosques in Anyer District, Serang Regency, Banten Province. This mosque is estimated to have stood around the beginning of the 171th century. The overall mosque building still looks like an old building, even though it has been renovated. Renovations in the form of repainting, changing frames and door leaves, sills and shutters, as well as adding or expanding buildings.

Authenticity can be seen from the basic form of the mosque building and some of its building components, especially the decoration, which still shows the ancientness. Cikoneng Mosque can be said to be an ancient Dutch mosque because it still has the characteristics of a traditional mosque. The shape of a multilevel tapered limas roof and the basic plan of a rectangular building are characteristic of a prominent traditional mosque, while the plastered brick wall material shows the main foreign element.

Readmore: The door of the calligraphy gebyok for Your Home

Mosques as places of worship for Muslims are certain to have the concept of Islamic teachings originating in the Qur'an and Hadith. However, Islam in Indonesia is deep Islam Indonesian culture. The concept of pre-Islamic cultural culture always goes hand in hand with the concept of pure Islamic teachings. Islamic teachings run by Muslim residents in Indonesia still contain elements of pre-Islamic traditions (Hindu-Buddha or even older times), both in daily life, in religious rituals, and in the physical character of the building of a place of worship, so that the architecture and decoration of the building contains traditional elements and foreign elements. As stated by Hasan Muarif Ambary, that Islamic studies in Indonesia on the one hand is the study of culture, on the other hand as studies are at the level of divine doctrine.

One interesting component to study in the ancient mosque is the decoration, in the form of Arabic (Islamic) calligraphy, which has special meaning, both as excerpts of verses in the Qur'an and quotes from hadith prophets, or other letters that are lettered Arabic and has meaning.

At the Cikoneng Anyer ancient mosque there are decorative forms of Islamic calligraphy carved on the inner walls of the mosque. Islamic calligraphy has a historical root in the tradition of beautiful writing from the Arabs, as the land from which calligraphy was born. The beautiful writing tradition is called khat as a manifestation of the word meaning of calligraphy, which comes from the word calligraphia which means beautiful writing.

Calligraphy is one of the objects of epigraphy research. Epigraphy is one part of archeological studies that study the culture of the past, including Islamic epigraphy. The discovery of Islamic calligraphy on the walls of the ancient Dutch mosque, shows the existence of Indonesian Islamic cultural heritage that has been mixed with elements of local and Western culture. This mixing of cultures is positive and does not damage the substance of the teachings of Islam itself.

The existence of Islamic calligraphy is a reflection of words, attitudes, and actions through nonverbal language, from the residents of Cikoneng Village at that time. Thus, culture is interpreted as adab or uhusna, which means beauty and kindness of words, attitudes, actions.

As an ancient mosque, Cikoneng Mosque Anyer has several mosque components that show its yellowness. One of them is a mosque decoration on the male prayer room wall or the main prayer room and also in the female prayer room (pawestren). The decoration is in the form of Arabic and Arabic-language calligraphy. In addition, there are also decorative items such as ceramic plates with colorful flora and geometric motifs.

Calligraphy is an excerpt from the verses of the Qur'an and hadith of the prophet or called Islamic calligraphy. At a glance there are some calligraphy that are easily observed and understood as Arabic writings that have meaning, such as Allah, Muhammad, and so on. However, there are also those who require observation and deep understanding of Islamic teachings contained in the Holy Qur'an and Hadith of the Prophet.

Around the wall at the top there are Arabic calligraphy carvings which are a line of verses from the letters in the Qur'an, as well as some quotes from the hadith of the Prophet. This situation shows a very clear and firm element of Islam. These quotes are usually spoken or recited verbally by reading them or memorizing them, then sculpted by language users or speakers as outlined in calligraphy on the walls of the mosque.

Users of Arabic languages   and scripts in the area of   the mosque are Dutch-era Islamic communities in the Anyer region in the city of Serang, Banten. They are in the social environment of Sundanese ethnic groups, who have become followers of Islam, mixed with local traditions and Western cultural influences. Daily language is the Sundanese language of the Banten dialect, while the language is a ritual ritual, such as prayer and reading the book holy (according to the teachings of Islam) is the language of the Qur'an (Islam / Arabic).

Meanwhile, Islamic calligraphy which is found now, has been read and understood by Muslims in general, in the present in the social and geographic environment that has developed. Early or original users of the Al-Qur'an language are Arab-Muslim people, while language users in the mosque area are Banten Islamic communities, indirectly interacting through the written language (Al-Qur'an and Prophet's Hadith).

Social interaction is shown by a sense of belonging and brotherhood as fellow Muslims. Although in reality what happens is only in the memory and confidence of the heart. Social relations also occur between the sculptors of Islamic calligraphy in the past and readers (observers) in the present. Between sculptor and observers are generally both Muslims and understand what is carved, or at least able to read the calligraphy.

It is possible that there are non-Muslim observers, who are interested and study the meaning and function of Islamic calligraphy. Among past sculptors and observers in the present, there are non-physical interactions, because of emotional intimacy given the similarity of beliefs, or similar interests and interests.

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